Life-Cycle Analysis – GREET® model -Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation

Life-Cycle Analysis – GREET® model -Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation


The GREET model is used to evaluate environmental impacts of advanced vehicle technologies, alternative transportation fuels, and new bio-derived chemicals.  With GREET, one can estimate 1) energy consumption including total energy (energy in non-renewable and renewable sources) and fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), 2) water consumption, 3) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, and 4) criteria air pollutant emissions including volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with size smaller than 10 microns and with size smaller than 2.5 microns, black carbon, and sulfur oxides. GREET provides a holistic and transparent platform for LCA of conventional and alternative vehicle technologies and fuel production technologies, fossil- and bio-derived chemicals, and materials required for vehicle manufacturing. The GREET model is used by more than 30,000 users around the world that include government agencies, other national labs, universities, and members of the transportation industry. The results of the LCA modeling are used to inform environmental benefits (e.g. reductions in GHG emission, fossil fuel consumption, and water consumption) of bio-derived chemicals and fuels in addition to helping identify primary drivers and technical barriers along the supply chain. The GREET model includes more than 100 fuel production pathways from various energy feedstock sources including conventional fossil resources such as petroleum, natural gas, coal, as well as renewable fuel production pathways including corn, sugarcane, soybeans, cellulosic biomass, etc. Bio-products produced from biochemical, biological, and thermochemical conversion technologies are included. In addition, the GREET model evaluates not only the fuel cycle (GREET 1) impacts but also includes vehicle-cycled modeling (GREET 2) capabilities. GREET has been in public domain and free of charge since 1995. A new version of the GREET model is released almost every year with new information and new pathways. The   latest version of the GREET model suite is available at

References and Additional Information:


Argonne National Laboratory